The Role of Digital Humanities in Western Art and Museums

Digital Humanities in the arts

In 2014, Twitter stormed and raged on about a bunch of kids sitting on their mobile phones while Frans Banning Cocq from Rembrandt’s The Night’s Watch at the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam looked on.

The photo by Gijsbert van der Wal was popularly derided as the “A metaphor of the times.” 

“Does this green go on the rest of my pallor?” Image courtesy: Rijksmuseum

Later, it was clarified that the students were researching the paintings around them in the Rijksmuseum app. As if to prove the point, there is another picture of the same students sitting raptly in front of another painting. This came as a surprise to many because not only were the students “Googling” information about the painting, but the instructors were using an online portal for a better understanding of the subject matter around them. This expands the traditional materials of teaching and switches up the classroom culture itself.

When I went to Delhi in the simmering, scalding heat of July, I know I could not have relied on my school history and civics classes to experience all the heritage sites, nor could I read books at the moment. An auditory travel guide app helped bridge the gap.

So these apps replicates an authentic museum experience, while also enriching it. So what?

Image courtesy: Entertainment Designer

From the movie Mona Lisa Smile, Julia Roberts’ character, Katherine Watson says, “With the ability to reproduce art, it is available to the masses.” Katherine Watson would embrace the museum app and Digital Humanities as a whole.

Mona Lisa Smile class
Even the country’s smartest women are distracted by Julia Roberts’ smile and somebody decided to name the movie after that with an afterthought to Art. That’s what happened right? Image from

Museums are no longer static. The MoMA’s museum website is a repository of complex, interactive, and thematic educational content. So does the Smithsonian Museum. Searchable databases include keywords, images, audio, and even emoji.

Less than a decade ago, art historians were apprehensive about using digital technology for research, let alone propagating the knowledge. One of the biggest frustrations from an art teacher’s side is the lack of access, and failure to replicate the experience. Without the level of detail of being right there, in front of a painting, “distant art reading” is not a viable option.

First we need to trace back to the usage of technology in the Arts. From Michael Greenhalgh’s Art History in A Companion to Digital Humanities(2004), we find out that the earliest computers were not feasible for art historians due to their small storage space and a graphical user interface (GUI) that left everyone wanting for more. Slowly, as conditions improved, collections were stacked up. Pioneering projects include Marilyn Aronberg Lavin’s Piero Project and the English VASARI Project to explore Piero della Francesca’s monumental chapel in Arezzo. Then came the laserdiscs which were used in the Vatican Library videodiscs. The first three images held around 75,000 images. However, the discs offered very little in resolution and clarity which was problematic in itself. Now, scanning and digitizing with readable support is easier with 5,000,000 pixel resolution, better hard disks than ever before and video, of course.

The future is considered to be in 3D graphics, Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML), and open-access digitization. Sarah Kenderdine in Embodiment, Entanglement, and Immersion in Digital Cultural Heritage says, “Understanding the fundamental nature of embodied experience will put humanities scholars and museum curators and designers at the forefront of articulating and defining meaning in an increasingly ubiquitous screen culture.”

Georg Schelbert in his paper on Art History in the World of Digital Humanities. Aspects of a Difficult Relationship asks us if the Digital Art History is failing at the Digital Humanities. James Cuno, the CEO of the J. Paul Getty Trust envisions a great potential for Digital Humanities in the Arts. He coaxes us to wonder about the number of ways in which a large amount of information stored in computers can be ordered and reordered in near-infinite ways, thus producing new epistemic paradigms in artistic research. Johanna Drucker in Is There a ‘Digital’ Art History? also points out that there were no direct effects of the Digital Humanities in art history critical theory. While traditional art history has always been upended with various polarizing topics like semiotics, structuralism, feminist thinking, etc., Digital Humanities hasn’t gained that kind of momentum.

That is not to say important work is not in the pipeline. Digital Humanities in the Arts, as with all other sections of the field, can be broadly classified into two parts:

  1. Data Collection and Archival
  2. Analysis of Existing Collection

So what is the current form of digitization undertaken by museums, specifically for art? Let us take the example of the Smithsonian Museum. It has a robust digitization program well underway.  Punzalan and Butler (2014) from the University of Maryland provide a thorough overview of this evolution of the digitization work being carried out.

  1. Museum objects, specimens, library volume, archive collation.
  2. Review and research in collaboration with teachers.
  3. Measuring up and aligning to various national standards.
  4. Forming Case studies, literature reviews, and creating learning resources.
Digital Humanities Archival Cycle
Teacher Mode: Activated. Kidding, I just love charts.

Learn more in-depth about this huge-scale project, complete with interesting findings laid out visually here. Since the project is student needs-oriented, the results are also pedagogical in nature. 

Similar resources:

Google Arts and Culture

Do you remember that time when people were able to take selfies and find out which artwork from around the world, one looked the most similar to? A portrait is a person’s face imprinted with the artist’s style – a snapshot of one person from another person’s brushstrokes in a different part of the world, from a different time that looks like you? No wonder this particular feature went viral! People who didn’t have the least inkling of what Renaissance painting had to do with Impressionist style of art (Or indeed, if it had any connection at all.) contributed to making the Google Arts and Culture app the most downloaded app on Google Play Store. Finding out you have an art doppelgänger from many many years ago is cool in itself, but the process with which Google Arts and Culture app explored art is fascinating.

Here I am going to talk about the origin of Google Arts and Culture project, the outreach program, specifically in the form of a art selfie gimmick, the technologies used for this to become a reality, and the cultural impact it has made.

Find out which character you most closely resemble from the depths of all artworks around the world.

How is Google Arts and Culture the new age All-in-one museum?

Amit Sood, Head of Google Art Project is the ringleader of this ambitious project, which started as just a concept that emerged as a result of a small team working on this initiative on their “20-percent time” policy. The goal here was to make anyone have the opportunity to comfortably access art from anywhere in the world, notwithstanding the geographical location of a museum or the pre-existing knowledge they might or might not conceivably already have. In 2011, when the project first took off, it was as simple as that.

So what did Google do?

Google created a museum of museums. 

Remember the Ferris Bueller’s Day Out scene at the Art Institute in Chicago? Specifically, do you remember the camera cutting between Cameron’s face and the face of the young girl at the center of the pointillist painting,1884’s A Sunday on La Grande Jatte by Georges Seurat. Inching closer to the canvas and his face with each cut, the camera is eventually so close to her face that it is no longer identifiable as a face but becomes a blur.

Look, I know it is crazy, but you can do just that! Actually, you can even get a close look at the small, distinct dots of color that are applied in patterns to form the pointillist image.

With the app, you could go from The Metropolitan Museum of Art and MoMA in New York, The State Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg, Tate Britain & The National Gallery in London, Museo Reina Sofia in Madrid, to the Uffizi Gallery in Florence to the Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam. 

Amit Sood going and simultaneously disappointing and exciting Indian parents everywhere. 

But with the Art Selfie or earlier known as the Portrait Matcher feature, Amit Sood and Cyril Diagne (Artist at Residence at École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne) put together a facial recognition software from the metadata collected from their collections of artworks from across the world, run through a machine learning software. One specific cluster, amongst many that did not have any specific reference point to time or location, was entirely made of portraits.

I relate very heavily to Sood’s story about a gold-fanatic Indian mother. This would be a perfect way of actually convincing my mother of a career in the field of Digital Humanities.

The Google Art Project

Why visit a museum from your armchair?

Google Arts and Culture feature artworks from around 1,500 museum partners from 70 countries. With the app, you can explore paintings, by zooming in to catch all the details – An experience that goes beyond museum where you are behind a barricade, protective glass covering, and in the case of the Louvre, a lot of people.  

Why do people think Digitizing Art is a Good Idea?

Is it not Inauthentic? Unreal? indirect?

1. Ease of Understanding

When you pick an object, artifact, painting, art installation or text, and then another and another, you are bound to pick up on subtle connections and recognize recurring patterns between them. The onslaught of information and possibilities is made more bearable with digitization. Creating visual graphs to bring the connections to life is the next step. Researchers can use this metadata to sort through the collections in the way or order that they require for the purposes of their research.

2. Ease of access

If you were to create an itinerary with the plan being a treasure hunt of all Vermeer paintings in the world, you would have to be up for a lot of traveling. The Dots mark all the spots you’ll catch one Vermeer painting. I don’t know about you, but I know this would take a lot of time, money, and efforts for me.

Maybe throw a dart or pick the closest one to you? Image courtesy: Essential Vermee

Becoming an armchair museum-enthusiast, at first glance, doesn’t seem to really be everyone’s cup of tea. Until you realize that there’s something in it for everyone.

3. Preservation and conservation

How do you quantify this kind of loss? Image Courtesy: Felipe Milanez, Wikimedia Commons

On a more serious note at the recent devastating Brazil National Museum fire in Rio de Janeiro was an exercise in regret over not digitizing all that was housed at the momentous museum. The brunt of a six-hour raging all-consuming fire was the kind of loss that cannot be quantified.

This has been a tragic horror story from the days of The Library of Alexandria. We must strive to never allow it to happen ever again.

I want everyone to fully appreciate the DONE look of the left-most character in this image. “Work in a Library, they said. You’ll get to read the books, they said.” | Image courtesy: Wikimedia Commons

Furthermore, just as physical paintings require upkeep, digital arts also require preservation. There has been a surge of “born-digital” artwork on the internet. This is content that has, from its conception, existed only digitally. Google Arts and Culture partnered with Rhizome to easily capture and reconstruct complex web pages and web archives, even viewable in legacy browsers. 

4. The Cultural Impact

Apart from learning patterns and recognizing new connections between completely different aspects of the world ( Kandinsky and Kanye West have something in common?), researchers use Google Arts and Culture to recognize, map, and research patterns. 


From both TechCrunch and The New Yorker, the implication of a “coded gaze” was apparent. The people are scared of technology because it takes away their privacy, being used for ulterior motives (training facial recognition algorithms) and the ever-present taking over our jobs argument.


Google is now an undeniable part of our daily digital life. It is a verb in our vocabulary. It is now a different order of a knowledgeable guide. Google Arts and Culture won’t substitute the museum-going experience, it supplements the arts and culture learning experience.

Looks diverse, doesn’t it? | Image courtesy: mashable

Perhaps an interesting but revealing insight into western museums was stumbled upon as a result of the Google Arts and Culture Selfie portrait feature.  While not inherently an issue with the application itself, the artworks had a glaring problem – a race problem. The Eurocentric nature of the artworks in museums led to a disproportionate number of people around the world, and what humans perceived fine art across our collective historical timeline. Simply put, “the whiter, the finer art”.

The Tech Geek’s guide to Art Digitization

Google used Street View with Picasa and App Engine to build the cutting edge tech required for going from the streets to a museum display front seat.

Picasa ensured “gigapixel” photo-capturing technology where each image contained about 7 billion pixels for the clearest zoom-in and emphasis on any art. The largest image at the time, Alexander Andreyevich Ivanov’s The Apparition of Christ to the People, is over 12 gigapixels. To maximize image quality, the team coordinated with partner museums’ lighting technicians and photography teams.

At the Tate Britain, a gigapixel image of No Woman No Cry can be visible in natural light, dark, as well as glowing in the dark.

After this, Google incorporated the “trolley view” or 360-degree camera angles in its Google Street View software and GPS data. The output you see includes integrations with Google Scholar, Google Docs, YouTube, and link shortener for creating favorite collections and even annotating them. The interactive, web-based virtual museum tour is on a platform that exists on Google’s infrastructure as a Java-based Google App Engine Web application.

Of course, Google didn’t stop there at high-quality art. Soon, we will be able to chart the emerging technologies that artists are using to showcase their works. Purely digital art is a growing trend.

Learn more here.

Here is a Google Ngram depicting the different points in time where the interest in Webcomics, illustrations, Photoshop tutorials, excel sheet art, etc. has peaked and you will notice, is still going strong.

When the Art Selfie idea came along Sood, who grew up in Mumbai, India, confessed he always felt art was not for him or his people because of its elitist standards. For anyone and everyone to even want to access it, required that kind of outreach. In the heydays of Snapchat and Instagram filters, the Art Selfie gimmick was bound to make a mark.

Just as a painting needs a touch every now and then, Google keeps updating their archives. 

But with the Art Selfie or earlier known as the Portrait Matcher feature, Amit Sood and Cyril Diagne (Artist at Residence at École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne) put together a facial recognition software from the metadata collected from their collections of artworks from across the world, run through a machine learning software. One specific cluster, amongst many that did not have any specific reference point to time or location, was entirely made of portraits.

The clusters could further be tagged by the computer itself which led to 4,000+ categories of images of paintings. There are interesting results coming out of the gap between the computer’s understanding a category and the images it displays.

To understand the facial recognition of a cluster of portraits, let us see “FACES: Faces, Art, and Computerized Evaluation Systems, Phase I: A feasibility proposal for the use of face recognition systems in the identification of unidentified works of portrait art.” FACES worked on establishing parameters for the facial recognition technology for portrait paintings. Two methods were chosen for dependable results:

  1. Computation of anthropometric distances (AD)
  2. Computation of local features (LF)

An algorithm was built on the basis of these two methods. The process of testing was as follows:

Facial Recognition Software Testing Process
Facial Recognition Software Testing Process  |Teacher Mode is back, and oh she likes flowcharts in all shapes and forms.

The algorithm itself used “match scores” to measure the similarity between the tested portraits. Fischer linear discriminant analysis, which is a method used in pattern recognition and statistics to categorize or separate two or more groups or classes of data, AD and LF match scores were combined. RANSAC algorithm which is an iterative method used to estimate the parameters of a mathematical model that contains outliers the probability density functions (PDF distributions) measured the distribution of match and non-match scores. The final learned distributions were called Portrait Feature Space (PFS).

Facial Recognition Software Algorithm | The teacher person in me frets over that gap too, don’t worry.

Gradually Sood and his team convinced museums that, far from being a threat, the website represented a unique opportunity to renew interest in the arts and culture.  More importantly, museums were given the freedom to curate their exhibitions online autonomously. Google provided the technology, and the museums shaped their own online presence. This, in turn, facilitated international collaborations, art talks, new opportunities in both the arts and the tech.

In addition to this, Google assured that it would not make any profit out of the content and that museums would always own the rights over the artwork. By the project’s five year anniversary, more than 1,000 institutions had joined in, offering us the chance to view more than six million items from our armchairs.

Examples of Museum Projects 

How are Universities facilitating digital Humanities in the Arts?

Will Noel is the University of Pennsylvania Libraries’ director of the Special Collections Center and founding director of the Schoenberg Institute for Manuscript Studies. He was a speaker at CUNY’s “The Commons and Digital Humanities in Museums”. He started off by saying that data should S.U.C.K. (i.e. be Sustainable, Usable, Complete, and Known). He put this into practice with the greatly admirable Archimedes Palimpsest project, where he converted the very useful book to metadata. Greg Etchelberger from MIT converted this to a usable interface. This is as a result of open access data. Such an interface should ideally be easy and cheap to maintain over a long period of time, while also being simple flat files. This is how it can be sustainable. To make it usable, we need it to be well-documented and free to use. To make it complete, it needs to have full resolution of every image, with descriptive and technical metadata specified. This can be extended to the all forms of art in a museum, as demonstrated by Will Noel’s Flickr project:

Cologny, Fondation Martin Bodmer, Cod. Bodmer 30, p. 08v
Notice the intricate borders? Can you spot the peacock? OG BuJos! (a.k.a. Original Bullet Journals)

When people from all over the world saw these collections, their reactions varied. Some made a collection of all Islamic architecture, another found out about their Cuban grandfather’s journal left in UPenn’s dorm room. Dot Porter made the text more readable by enhancing the brightness via coding, and also made an iconographic search possible on various manuscripts in Project Unica. Now, users get access to data they never could have before, and the institutions that hold the originals gain popularity. Everyone knows what the Mona Lisa looks like but they go to to the Louvre for seeing the Mona Lisa yet again. Digital art is a self-servicing advertisement for museums.

Art is expansive.

Neal Stimler is an Arts Consultant and Humanities Entrepreneur who led The Metropolitan Museum of Modern Arts #MetOpenAccess initiative. He believes that the digital tools that Digital Humanities has given rise to in the museum sphere helps empower museums themselves, and specifically “reignite museums as civic centers of network life”. He describes the role of Digital Humanities in museums in 3 key terms, namely: Utility, Ubiquity, and Unselfishness. The usage of museum data should be and become omnipresent across our daily life, becoming representative of museums’ ability to share their data. Museums should exemplify the virtue of democracy, openness, and collaboration.

When Marion Thain, Associate Director of Digital Humanities at NYU moderated the discussion on “When Digital Humanities Meets Art Galleries“ she brought to attention the diversity of the projects being presented.

Jonathan Hay, NYU scholar of ancient Chinese paintings spoke about a Conservation Museum and “thread counting” in Paintings within the context of Institute of Fine Arts. Richard C. Johnson of Cornell Tech in collaboration with Don Johnson from Rice University developed an automated thread counting algorithm. Soon, a pattern – digital fingerprint formed. Especially when he worked in collaboration with the Van Gogh museum. Soon, art historians set to work understanding the manner in which Van Gogh cut the same canvas in different sections, and are most definitely genuinely Van Gogh’s. The technology behind this project is based on the use of spectral analysis of the paintings’ x-rays. The weave density thus calculated simplified the manual procedure which included a lightbox mounting and magnification with an eyepiece. After the weave maps and the matches were assembled, data fusion, data analysis, and database creation activities are carried out.

Apart from Van Gogh paintings, Johannes Vermeer paintings and several other 15th to early 21st-century European painters were also analyzed similarly. The Vermeer painting analysis was especially fruitful since it made a strong case for its authenticity, which was previously disputed by many art historians. Consecutively angle maps and weave density spectral analysis are poised to become the revolutionary tools in computational art history.

When Marion Thain approached Richard Johnson for a similar project on Chinese paintings, there was one big problem. Chinese paintings made on fans had a very rough weave since the material was very fine. However, they narrowed down the difficulty by scanning sections of the paintings with a microscope first. The project is underway between several museums in Tokyo, Guangzhou, and New York.

Sarah DeMott, the Data Services Specialist at NYU Libraries perhaps had the most personal story to tell of them all. Her project can easily become the new way of travel blogging. It started as a way of documenting and tracing the refugee lives of Sicilians in Tunisia. As she was taking pictures of a palazzo in Tunis, a random stranger asked her the reason for her enthusiasm about a palazzo. He then took her to la petite Sicile. Three years later they met again in a gallery opening at the Medina. Hamadi Ben Saad, for that, was the man she met all those years ago, and once again, gave her a flash drive with all his artistic work.

When she went back to Tunisia, she started Story Mapping and cataloging the places he drew inspiration from, while mapping his work all around the city.  I could call it Meta-Photography, except she went further by using Geo-Spatial coding software, ArcGIS thereafter. In a very touching story, she describes her experience of meeting bin Saeed in a cafe after years of looking for him. She even documents her experiences of the Jasmine revolution or Arab Spring in geospatial images. Then she went on to layer the images with her own experiences, and Medina Recontant was born. The project is her, talking to her first friend in Tunisia, who inspired her so greatly. She planned on making the story map more interactive to create a wider scope for a two-way conversation.

Next, Deena Engel, the Director of NYU’s Masters in Digital Humanities and Social Sciences program and Joanna Phillips, the Senior Conservator at Guggenheim Museum held a discussion on studying computer-based artworks. 20+ artworks in a  variety of forms are all in the common medium – namely, the computer code. One artwork was even coded in an old programming language SP-4 (Scalable Programmable Packet Processing Platform). The challenge in almost all types of artwork is the conservation and preservation of the artist’s intended message, behavior, and technique. The use of infrared reflectography and X-ray acts as a reference point for analyzing this. In one instance, from one Picasso painting emerged another. In software-based artwork, if the code is the equivalent of the pigment and binding agent of the artwork, the version control mechanism of code recreates the tracing of the artwork’s lifespan as well.

NYU students helped in researching the intended artwork reactions, much like the YouTube reaction channels of various movie trailers, games, songs, etc. They also research the native production environment, which records and displays the artist’s process while creating the said artwork. Perhaps most interesting of these is the source code analysis of the artwork. Students check the scripted functionality of the artworks, thus making it easier for conservationists to understand and manage the work better. This increases accessibility for conservation treatment which Deena Engel called “software remediation”.

Deena Engel emphasized the importance of interoperability between the STEM and the Humanities and bringing them together as STEAM. Interdisciplinary collaboration is a necessity for computer science students heretofore. Likewise, applying computer science concepts like “Reverse Engineering” in the project has been beneficial to everyone involved. “Reading code” is like reading French except more visual in this particular case. I myself, have always seen programming as a magical language that converts what is essentially, words, into something happening in front of you. Dare I say it, programming is as, if not more magical than a fantasy-science-fiction novel because it is creative in a twofold manner – Syntactically and Visually. You could say movies are the same, but in the movie subtitles do not count for text, and dialogues are just not the same.

Students interview the artists to learn and reconcile the artist’s perspective with the technical aspects of the artwork. They need to understand the code so thoroughly that they can provide answers to questions on the functionality of the code in different situations such as OS change, version change, system change, etc. Students face the challenge of software remediation within the confines of the artist’s aesthetic and structure of the work. This sounds the best real-world experience in research as well as technical skills there is.

Glenn Wharton, the Professor of Museum studies at NYU and former MoMA conservationist, dealt with performance work, software work, installation work, video art, and a transmedia depiction of the each of them. His current project “The Artist Archives Initiative – David Wojnarowicz” picks up the complications of the posthumous collection of audio narrative, film digitization, interview transcripts, activism activity, and artwork curation. The project is becoming a resource that maps the symbolic complications between different relationships each of this information represents.

On the technical side of things, the database model and user interface had to be decided on, first. The underlying data structures are an important part of the system. The main aim here is to be as flexible as possible so that even as time goes on the artwork doesn’t become obsolete, but can be updated. Engel even mentions that the malleability of the data structures is an important decisive factor in not only specific artworks but overall, in art history, in general, as well. It must go beyond the heuristic way of thinking. The main tenets for this were similar to Will Noel’s idea of project creation in terms of ease of use, open source, accessible, easily maintained, and inexpensive resource.

In this blog post, one attendee reviews this “Digital Humanities meets Art Galleries” event as one that left him or her leaving room for wanting more Digital Humanities over the Art gallery aspect of the discussion. Since I cannot comment on this because I found both aspects interesting, I cannot deny that Deena Engel’s insights were most valuable for a Computer Science student like me. I care deeply about having a better understanding of the tech side of Digital Humanities, and she provided an insight into the field as a computer science academician. I would have been very interested to know her students’ take on the discussion as well.

So I set out looking for the tools museums are using for their digitization process and I came across CMOA’s Elysa tool.

In the 2017 Digital Provenance Symposium’s panel on museum Collections and Digital Humanities, held by Carnegie Museum of Art, Pittsburgh, their latest initiative, Art Tracks was discussed. Kristen Regina, the Head of Libraries at Pittsburg, began moderating the event by stating that the Library of Congress was actively collecting data from Twitter and that was the scale of data libraries are looking at, so obviously Big Data comes into play here. Indeed, it is a popular field since the surge of Library and Information science degrees have become more technology dominant. In Art Tracks, the chronology of the ownership, custody or location of a historical object is traced. After the Museum provenance tool converts the records into structured, searchable, and well-formatted data, Elysa (pronounced like “Eliza”) tool acts as an a user interface that assists museum professionals in verification, modification, and refining provenance records. You can view the prototype here.

Moods for Digital Humanities in the Arts

Lawrence Lessig, Lewis Hyde, and Bill Ivey, among others, as museum technologists have been striving to provide greater access to cultural heritage collections. The currents of Digital Humanities is toward openness and democratic participation. The GLAM-WIKI movement and Creative Commons licenses have also significantly reshaped museum practices.

I could go on but essentially there is a greater depth in this field, obviously, that I look forward to learning about.

How can museums build vanguard collaborations and collective resources not only to aid art in their “pure” form as the artist intended but also to create new artwork in a digital culture?

Hello! Do let me know what you think, and if there is anything you think I should learn more about! Thank you for sticking around! Here’s some modern art for you.


  1. For an art academics novice like me, this has to be one of the best learning experiences I’ve had in the Art + Technology field.
    The Art side of this world was well explained and left me wanting more. While the tech side of things was explained well enough for even those who were probably not as well versed in tech. As I’ve said before so much to look up now!!

    Liked by 1 person

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